1. GSR (Galvanic Skin Response): this measures the electrical conductance of the skin. The signal can be decomposed into Skin Conductance Responses (SCR), related to short events, and the Skin Conductance Level (SCL), and related to the underlying basal arousal activity. The GSR is often the primary psychophysiological measure used when gauging emotional and stress activation as it responds very quickly (1-3 seconds after onset of stimulus);

  2. BVP (Blood Volume Pulse): is an indicator of blood flow using a photoplesthysmyography. In stress, the amplitude of the blood volume pulses tends to decrease following sympathetic arousal;

  3. HR (Heart Rate): is computed from the raw BVP waveform by finding consecutive local maxima. An increase in sympathetic activity will increase the heart rate. Besides the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and the Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) in stress is inconsistent (cortical inhibition);

  4. EMG (Electromyogram): this is the electrical activity of the skeletal muscles (characterizes neuromuscular system). The greater the stress, the more likely the muscles will produce a synchronous twitching effect;

  5. EEG (Electroencephalogram): measurement of electrical spontaneous brain activity and other brain potentials. Stress could throw the frequency to the higher beta range brain waves;

  6. Temp (body/skin Temperature): this is the actual temperature of the body and the skin. In stress situations the temperature of the body and skin changes;

  7. BR (Breathing Rate): this is the number of movements which are indicative of inspiration and expiration per unit time. Under stress, this number is altered; and

  8. EOG (Electrooculography): measurement of retinal function by recording changes in steady, resting electric potentials of the eye. Under stress, important changes in these measurements take place.

A sensor technology samples currently available on the commercial market are presented in the following table:

Table sensors applicable to stress measuring

Master and bachelor thesis ideas/works in this context (sensors and stress) are welcomed.

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